Carrageenans are mucopolysaccharides from the cell walls of the red algae. They are anionic linear polymers composed of 1,3α-1,4β-galactans having one (κ-), two (ι-) or three (λ-) sulfates per disaccharide unit. In ionic solutions, κ- and ι-carrageenans self-associate into helical structures that form rigid or flexible gels, respectively. λ- carrageenans do not form helices and are non-gelling. Carrageenans are used commercially as thickeners and stabilizing agents.

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